General attitudes toward cultural change can then shift; new ideas may be welcomed as promising a better life instead of being regarded as a threat to established ways of doing things. These expectations are known as norms. However, in many countries, women also do a lot of farm work.
Children are not born with this knowledge; they learn by seeing how older children and adults behave. Some religions impose patterns of behaviour which may affect extension.
Informal leaders are not so easy to identify, because they do not hold any particular position of authority. Therefore, children who grow up in violent and turbulent environments have a higher likelihood of becoming aggressive as adults.
Different seed varieties could be tried, or water use improved to provide more irrigated land. There are also, in all societies, small groups of people who come together for a common purpose or activity. It is the way in which people live, their customs, traditions, methods of cultivation and so on.
In many rural societies, the extension agent will have little success unless he first gains the support of the traditional leaders. In Papua New Guinea, air services have enabled isolated mountain communities to market vegetables in towns and mining settlements that used to be inaccessible.
Discuss the history of helping behavior and human services in western culture. This can be a very serious barrier to change if the individual sees little advantage in improving his or her position because there is not much personal benefit from the improvement.
These people have a certain influence, but they can also often cause suspicion and jealousy among those who are less eager to change. Where there is tension between different parts of a community, extension agents should as far as possible avoid making it worse and, wherever possible, they should seek ways to reduce this tension.
In a landmark study, Harvard anthropologist Anne Becker surveyed the women of a Fiji island before and after the arrival of television. In some communities, for example, kinship groups may own land jointly but leave each small family to farm its own plots. In other societies individuals can buy land and do what they like with it.
However, this may be overcome by concealing wealth, by distributing cattle among friends, or by burying or banking money so that relatives can be told that no money is available to help them. Residents of a village will want facilities such as a school, clean water and health services.
Farmers and their families have to eat what they produce as well as sell some of it, so taste and cooking quality are very important.
The farmer is, therefore, unlikely to adopt new methods, which, while they might increase income, would mean that more time had to be devoted to working the farm and less to ceremonial and social obligations.History of Human Services.
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